Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I)


Members of ProFaNE carried out a systematic review of the literature on measures of fear of falling [1] and had two extended workshops on this topic, with invited experts from across Europe. After intensive review of all the fear of falling, self effiacy and balance confidence questionnaires that had been developed and validated showed that all had some limitations, especially for use in different languages and cultures. Members of ProFaNE's Workpackage 4, led by Chris Todd and Lucy Yardley, then developed the Falls Efficacy Scale - International (FES-I)[2], which has been proven to be just as reliable and a little more sensitive to between group differences than the original FES, developed by Tinetti [3,4]. FES-I has been validated in four European Countries [5] and is feasible in clinical practice [6].

The Short-FES-I was developed to allow the tool to be more feasibly used in clinical practice [7] as it comprises 7 questions rather than 16 questions. The Short-FES-I is reliable and useful in clinical practice [6] and has also been validated for use in older adults with cognitive impairment [8]. For other references that have used or cited FES-I, download the Reference Manager file "NAME".

See below for a full list of all available translations and their current status. For information regarding translation of the FES-I or Short FES-I, contact Chris Todd. There is a section below on how to translate the FES-I into your language, the scoring of the FES-I and how to handle missing data. If you need to contact the authors of translations, please click the names of the authors of the particular translation and this will prepare an email. ProFaNE members are now carrying out studies to assess FES-I and Short FES_I's sensitivity to change following an intervention.


[1] Jørstad EC, Hauer K, Becker C, Lamb SE on behalf of the ProFaNE group. Measuring the psychological outcomes of falling: a systematic review. J Am Geriat Soc. 2004;5:501-510.

[2] Yardley L, Beyer N, Hauer K, Kempen G, Piot-Ziegler C, Todd C. Development and initial validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). Age Ageing. 2005;34(6):614-9.

[3] Tinetti ME, Mendes de Leon CF, Doucette JT, Baker DI. Fear of falling and fall-related efficacy in relationship to functioning among community-living elders. J Gerontol. 1994;49(3):M140-7.

[4] Hauer K, Yardley L, Beyer N, Kempen G, Dias N, Campbell M, Becker C, Todd C. Validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale and Falls Efficacy Scale International in geriatric patients with and without cognitive impairment: results of self-report and interview-based questionnaires. Gerontology. 2010;56(2):190-9.

[5] Kempen GI, Todd CJ, Van Haastregt JC, Zijlstra GA, Beyer N, Freiberger E, Hauer KA, Piot-Ziegler C, Yardley L. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) in older people: results from Germany, the Netherlands and the UK were satisfactory. Disabil Rehabil. 2007;29(2):155-62.

[6] Helbostad JL, Taraldsen K, Granbo R, Yardley L, Todd CJ, Sletvold O. Validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International in fall-prone older persons. Age Ageing (Letter). 2010;39(2):259.

[7] Kempen GI, Yardley L, van Haastregt JC, Zijlstra GA, Beyer N, Hauer K, Todd C. The Short FES-I: a shortened version of the falls efficacy scale-international to assess fear of falling. Age Ageing. 2008;37(1):45-50.

[8] Hauer KA, Kempen GI, Schwenk M, Yardley L, Beyer N, Todd C, Oster P, Zijlstra GA. Validity and Sensitivity to Change of the Falls Efficacy Scales International to Assess Fear of Falling in Older Adults with and without Cognitive Impairment. Gerontology. 2010 Oct 22. [Epub ahead of print].

FES-I Translations

Complete list of all the available translations of the FES-I:

In alphabetical order
FES-I Status
Click to Download
Short FES-I Status
Click to Download
Click to Email
Brazilian-PortugeseTranslatedNot AvailableRosangela Correa Dias
ChineseTranslatedNot AvailableJacqui Close
DanishTranslatedTranslatedNina Beyer
DutchValidatedValidatedRuud Kempen
EnglishValidatedTranslatedLucy Yardley
Chris Todd
FrenchTranslatedNot AvailableChantal Piot-Ziegler
GermanValidatedTranslatedKlaus Hauer
GreekTranslatedTranslatedEvdokia (Vicky) Billis
Ismene Dontas
HindiTranslatedNot AvailableLucy Yardley
Chris Todd
NorwegianTranslatedTranslatedJorunn L. Helbostad
PunjabiTranslatedNot AvailableLucy Yardley
Chris Todd
SpanishTranslatedNot AvailableAntoni Salva
SwedishValidatedTranslatedEva Nordell
Swiss_FrenchTranslatedTranslatedChantal Piot-Ziegler
UrduTranslatedNot AvailableLucy Yardley
Chris Todd

Translating the FES-I into your language

You can translate the FES-I into your own language. We ask that you read the original documentation on the development of the FES-I, and the Translation/Interviewer notes and Translation Manual before proceeding. We also ask that you contact Chris Todd first to check if someone else is already doing this translation and so that he can keep an up to date record of the current translations.

Handling FES-I Sumscores

To obtain a total score for the FES -I simply add the scores on all the items together, to give a total that will range from 16 (no concern about falling) to 64 (severe concern about falling).

Missing data

If data is missing on more than four items then that questionnaire cannot be used. If data is missing on no more than four of the 16 items then calculate the sumscore of the items that have been completed (i.e. add together the responses to each item on the scale), divide by the number of items completed, and multiply by 16. The new sumscore should be rounded up to the nearest whole number to give the score for an individual.